What are the different types of biodegradable plastics?



Title: Exploring the Diverse Types of Biodegradable Plastics


The mounting global concern over plastic pollution has led to a rapid rise in the demand for sustainable alternatives. Biodegradable plastics have emerged as a promising solution, standing at the forefront of eco-friendly packaging materials. This article aims to delve into the distinct types of biodegradable plastics and shed light on their composition, properties, and applications.

1. Starch-Based Bioplastics

One of the most common types of biodegradable plastics is starch-based bioplastics, derived from renewable sources such as corn, wheat, or potatoes. These plastics are predominantly made by combining starch with a polymer such as polycaprolactone (PCL) or polybutylene adipate terephthalate (PBAT). Starch-based plastics are often used as packaging materials for food and consumer goods due to their biodegradability and low carbon footprint.

2. Polylactic Acid (PLA) Bioplastics

Polylactic Acid (PLA) bioplastics are derived from fermented plant sugars, typically obtained from corn or sugarcane. PLA offers desirable properties such as transparency, strength, and excellent gas barrier properties, making it a suitable alternative to conventional plastics. PLA bioplastics are commonly utilized in the packaging industry, including bottles, food containers, and disposable cutlery.

3. Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA)

Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) are natural polymers that can be produced through bacterial fermentation of plant or animal sources. PHA bioplastics are versatile and possess qualities similar to conventional plastics, including durability and heat resistance. These plastics can be found in various applications like packaging, textiles, agriculture, and medical products.

4. Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB)

Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) is a type of PHA bioplastic that stands out due to its high biodegradability and ability to degrade in both industrial composting facilities and marine environments. PHB is derived from microorganisms like bacteria that convert renewable carbon sources into a biodegradable polymer. Its potential applications span from food packaging to agricultural films, disposable items, and medical devices.

5. Polybutylene Succinate (PBS)

Polybutylene Succinate (PBS) is a biodegradable thermoplastic polyester derived from succinic acid and 1,4-butanediol, both of which can be produced through the fermentation of plant-based carbohydrates. PBS offers excellent heat resistance and mechanical properties, making it a suitable material for applications such as packaging films, disposable cutlery, and agricultural films.

6. Polyethylene-Co-Vinyl Alcohol (EVOH)

Polyethylene-Co-Vinyl Alcohol (EVOH) is a biopolymer produced through the copolymerization of ethylene and vinyl alcohol monomers. EVOH exhibits a high resistance to gas and moisture permeation, making it ideal for food packaging applications. Its excellent barrier properties help extend the shelf life of perishable goods such as meat, dairy, and beverages while reducing the need for excessive plastic layers.

7. Polybutylene Adipate Terephthalate (PBAT)

Polybutylene Adipate Terephthalate (PBAT) belongs to the polyester family and is created by combining three monomers: adipic acid, terephthalic acid, and butanediol. PBAT is widely used as a blender in different biodegradable plastics to enhance their flexibility and durability. Due to its compatibility with other bioplastics, PBAT finds applications in packaging films, bags, and agricultural films.


As the world grapples with the repercussions of plastic pollution, biodegradable plastics have emerged as a promising solution. The diverse types of biodegradable plastics, including starch-based bioplastics, PLA, PHA, PHB, PBS, EVOH, and PBAT, offer a range of properties suitable for various applications. These alternatives have gained traction in industries such as packaging, agriculture, and medical sectors as they reduce dependence on conventional plastics while highlighting environmental consciousness. Continued research and innovation in the field of biodegradable plastics hold the potential to reshape our consumption patterns and foster a more sustainable future.

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